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Kas yra Tongkat Ali?

Laikas: 2023-06-26 Pataikymai: 13

Eurycoma longifolia is a plant of the Simaroubaceae Eurycoma genus. It is called Malaysian ginseng, native ginseng, natural Viagra, etc. in its original place of origin. It is often used as a medicine with roots, and has the effects of anti-cancer, anti malaria, and improving male Sexual dysfunction. It is widely distributed in Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. In addition, its extract also has a variety of effects such as improving physical strength, reducing fatigue, sterilization, anti ulcer, lowering blood pressure and treating diabetes. It is one of the most precious applied botanicals in Southeast Asia.

Antitumor activity

The anticancer effect of Tongkat Ali was first reported in 1990. Morita et al. [14] found that Longilactone, 13,21-dihydroeurocomanone, 14,15-dihydroxyklaineanone purified from the roots of Tongkat Ali had cytotoxic activity against KB and P-388 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.40,0.33,0.38 μ g/mL (KB) and 1.30,1.20,0.29 μ g/mL (P-388). Morita et al. [161 reported  in 1993 that the isolated compounds 6-dehydroxylonglactone, 7a-hydroxyeurolactone, 12-neneneba acetyl -13, 21-dihydroeuroacyl ketone had strong cytotoxicity against P-388 cancer cell lines, with IC50 of 0.66, 0.1L, 0.94, respectively μ G/m L. The hydrolysates of compound 14 deacetyleuryne and eurylene, 11 deacetyleurytene, exhibit strong cytotoxic activity against KB cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 0.52 and 3.30, respectively μ G/mL. Kuo et al. [17,18] extracted 65 compounds from the root of Tongkat Ali and studied them. They found that 7 of them had significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 tumor cells, and 8 had strong cytotoxic activity against lung cancer A549 tumor cells, all with IC50 below 2.5 μ G/mL. Tee et al. [19] attempted to explore the mechanism of action of such active compounds and found that the crude extract of Tongkat Ali can induce cell apoptosis through the action of apoptotic proteases, thereby inhibiting the growth of MCF-5 tumor cells. In addition, some scholars have reported that the extract of Tongkat Ali root, which is rich in enrycomenone, can induce apoptosis of liver cancer cell Hep G2 through the P53 pathway. Pooi Fong et al. [211] found that eurycomanone can achieve anti-cancer effect by inhibiting the expression of inhibin protein, annexin and Endoplasmic reticulum protein 28 in lung cancer cells.

Antimalarial activity

Chana [22] found that the chloroform and n-butanol parts of the methanol crude extract of Tongkat Ali Root have antimalarial activity, with an IC50 ranging from 0.05 to 0.50 μ  g/mL; Among the pure compounds isolated, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and eurycomanol have the same properties as chloroquine (IC50=20.21) μ G/mL) similar or stronger malaria parasite inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 0.21,0.11,0.28, respectively μ G/mL. Kuo et al. [23] also reported that eurycomanone and pasakbumin B have stronger malaria parasite inhibitory activity than chloroquine. The mechanism of its action is that the quatsinoids like compounds in the extract of the roots of the plant can inhibit the synthesis of proteins in the body of malaria parasites, thereby achieving anti malaria effects [24].

Lytinės funkcijos gerinimas

Ang et al. [25,26] fed the crude extract of Tongkat Ali to adult male mice with sexual experience, all sexual function indicators of male mice improved. However, adult male mice without sexual experience experienced symptoms after feeding the crude extract, indicating its induction and enhancement effects. Linetc [27] found that the crude ethanol extract of Tongkat Ali Root could reduce the release of basal testosterone, but could increase the testosterone secretion of mouse leydig cells induced by human chorionic Gonadotropin. Solomon et al [28.29] gavaged the water extract of Tongkat Ali to rats for 14 days. In addition to observing the number of sperm and testosterone concentration, they also compared the weight of testis, epididymis, prostate, Gastrocnemius muscle muscle, omentum and other organs before and after taking the drug, and evaluated the motility, rate, activity, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial Membrane potential (MMP) of sperm. The results showed that compared with the control, the water extract of Tongkat Ali had no effect on the weight of each organ. The intimal fat decreased by 31.9%, the testosterone concentration increased by 30.2%, and the weight of Gastrocnemius muscle muscle increased, but not significantly. The MMP significantly increased by 25.1%, and the number, kinetic energy, and activity of sperm significantly increased. Du Wenwei et al. [30] prepared a Yang deficiency model using castration surgery and observed the effect of drugs on castrated rats. The results showed that Tongkat Ali can significantly shorten the erection latency of castrated rats, increase the weight of sexual organs, and increase the index of organs in castrated rats, including the anal levator muscle, bladder, and prostate. This indicates that Tongkat Ali has a certain effect of tonifying the kidney and strengthening yang. Qiao Tongling [31] established a sports induced low blood testosterone rat model by allowing rats to undergo 6 weeks of exhaustive swimming training, and then administered Tongkat Ali and Lepidium meyenii to observe their testosterone promoting effects; The results showed that taking both Maca and Tongkat Ali significantly enhanced the endurance exercise ability of rats, prolonged the exhaustion time of weight-bearing swimming, effectively reduced the decrease in blood testosterone levels in rats undergoing long-term exhaustive swimming training, improved the low blood testosterone state induced by exercise, and the testosterone promoting effect of Tongkat Ali was better than that of Maca. Low et al. [32] found that the mechanism by which the extract rich in quercetin from Tongkat Ali promotes sperm production is regulated by the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis. Subsequently, Low et al. [33] extracted the active ingredient eurycomanone from the root of the East Germain and explored its testosterone promoting activity.

Other active effects

In addition to the above activity studies, Tongkat Ali also has functions such as reducing blood lees, antibacterial, treating shoulder wind, and osteoporosis. Polanski et al. (I34) found that the compound shinlul actonec in Tongkat Ali has anti HIV activity, with EC 50-106 mmol/L. Husen et al. [35] found that Tongkat Ali can reduce blood pool levels in hyperglycemic model mice. Rajeev et al. reported that daily consumption of Tongkat Ali Leaf and root can control blood sugar levels. Farouk et al. 136] extracted different parts of Tongkat Ali with four different solvents: methanol, ethanol, acetone and water. After observing the resistance of each extract to Gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria, it was found that except for two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and typhoid bacillus, the leaf and stem extracts had certain antibacterial effects. At the same time, the water extract of the leaf had strong antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aureus and Salmonella, However, the root extract did not show any antibacterial activity. Farouk et al. [36] extracted different parts of Tongkat Ali with four different solvents: methanol, ethanol, acetone and water. After observing the resistance of each extract to Gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria, it was found that except for two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and typhoid bacillus, the leaf and stem extracts had certain antibacterial effects. At the same time, the water extract of the leaf had strong antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aureus and Salmonella, However, the root extract did not show any antibacterial activity. Shuid et al. [37]found that the extract of Tongkat Ali can prevent bone calcium loss in rats undergoing pancreatectomy, so it is believed that it can be used to treat osteoporosis caused by androgen deficiency. Shi Kun et al. [38] found that Dongge Ali extract can significantly reduce the serum concentration of inflammatory factors( IL- 1β,IL- 8, NO and 5-HT)and the content of Myeloperoxidase in gouty arthritis rats, and has a significant role in reducing joint swelling, alleviating pain and inhibiting the development of inflammation. Salahi [39] and others found that Dongge Ali has a significant effect on inhibiting Angiogenesis. Its mechanism is that the extract of Tongkat Ali root contains a large number of bitter lignin compounds. According to HPLC analysis, it is mainly eurycomanone, 13a (21) - epoxy eurycomanone and eurycomanol, which can inhibit the proliferation, variation and transfer of Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE C), thereby inhibiting Angiogenesis. Talbott et al. [40] observed the stress and emotional changes of 63 screened volunteers who took Tongkat Ali extract continuously for 4 weeks. The results showed that anxiety, anger, and doubt in the population decreased by 11%, 12%, and 15%, respectively.

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